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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 68-72

Evaluation of incompatible crossmatch

Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

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Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/GJTM.GJTM_11_20

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Background and Objectives: Crossmatching is one of the bases of pretransfusion testing. Resolving problems in crossmatching should be carried out after proper planning and following departmental guidelines, and hence that time is not wasted, or blood withheld from patient unnecessarily. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and cause of incompatible crossmatch and to formulate root cause analysis to help ensure safe transfusion. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in North India, from December 2018 to November 2019. Request for blood components was received along with 2 ml labeled sample in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and plain tube. Crossmatching was done by column agglutination method in polyspecific (IgG + C3d) bead cards by ortho clinical diagnostic using semi-automated biovue. In case of any incompatible result, it was resolved using appropriate steps. Results: During the study period from December 2018 to November 2019, only 67 (0.65%) of the 10,320 samples received were found to be crossmatch incompatible and evaluated and appropriate donor units issued. The crossmatch incompatibility was much higher in the females (46, 68.7%) than the males (21, 31.3%). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was positive in nine patient samples, and the indirect antiglobulin test was found positive in 37 incompatible crossmatch units. Eleven cases of incompatible crossmatch were due to wrong blood in tube, seven due to contamination of reagents, and three due to DAT-positive donor units. Conclusion: In this study, alloimmunization (55.2%) was the most prevalent cause of incompatible crossmatch, and the most common alloantibody identified was anti-E. Incompatible crossmatch poses a challenge in the field of transfusion medicine. Root cause analysis is a systemic method for identifying all the contributing factors to a problem, so that the corrective action can be taken. A logical stepwise approach will enable the provision of safe transfusion.

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