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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 211-217

Prevalence of unexpected red cell antibodies in healthy donor population in a tertiary care center in South Kerala

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Debasish Gupta
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/gjtm.gjtm_60_21

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Background and Objectives: Apart from naturally occurring red cell antibodies Anti-A and Anti-B in human plasma, there are two types of unexpected red cell antibodies: Alloantibodies and auto-antibodies. The presence of these antibodies, alone or in combination, makes difficulties with compatibility testing, thereby delaying in the issue of a compatible blood unit or may reduce posttransfusion red blood cells life span. Antibody screening is mandatory as laid down by the Drug and Cosmetic Act 1940 and Directorate General of Health Services guidelines. This goal of this paper was to study the prevalence of Unexpected Red Cell Antibodies in Healthy Donor Population in a Tertiary Care Centre in South Kerala. Methods: The sample size chosen for this study was 7000 randomly chosen healthy nonremunerated voluntary donors who attended in house and blood donation camps over a period between November 26, 2017, and February 15, 2019. Results: The prevalence of unexpected red cell antibodies was found to be 1 in 1000. Male blood donations were more than female and blood donors among 18–30 years of age were greater in number. There were no cases of direct antiglobulin test positivity encountered. Male: Female ratio is 2.5:1 and males had naturally occurring alloantibodies, whereas females had a previous history of pregnancy. Anti-M and Anti-Lewis antibodies were the most common alloantibodies followed by Anti-Rh (D and C) antibodies and Anti-IH in the current study. Benign cold agglutinins (BCA) were found predominately in the younger male population with a significant seasonal variation noted in the prevalence of these antibodies. Conclusion: All antibodies identified had the ability to cause immune hemolytic transfusion reactions in the recipients. BCA-positive cases were seen more during the winter season and rainy seasons when compared to hot climatic conditions.

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