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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 144-148

Transfusion challenges and use of best match blood transfusion in autoimmune hemolytic anemia patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital of South India

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dibyajyoti Sahoo
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/gjtm.gjtm_39_22

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Background and Objectives: In autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients, there is decreased survival of red blood cells (RBCs) because of increased destruction by patients' autoantibodies. Due to decreased survival of RBCs, there is an increase in erythropoiesis and other biochemical parameters of hemolysis. One of the vital tests in AIHA is direct Coombs test (DCT). In this study, we share our experience on the difficulties faced by us during the compatibility testing and providing transfusion support to these patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study done in the department of transfusion medicine in a tertiary care hospital of South India. Patients from January 2020 to March 2021 with the diagnosis of AIHA requiring transfusion were included in this study. A total of 136 patients with positive DCT with AIHA diagnosis requiring transfusion support were included in our study. Results: Out of 136 cases, 58% (n=79) of patients had incompatibility during cross matching while in 42% (n=57) had cross matched compatible unit. In all incompatible cases best match blood was transfused. Most transfusions were done for patients with DCT Grade 4+. Out of 45 patients with mixed AIHA, 40 (88.8%) patients required a transfusion (P < 0.05). Of that 104 patients with transfusion support, 66 (63%) were with primary AIHA and 38 (36.04%) with secondary AIHA. Conclusion: It is tough and challenging to get compatible units in AIHA patients. Best-matched blood is useful when transfusion becomes essential during life-threatening anemia.

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